Even after entering the phase of cultural development, we have used our water resources so blindly by not conserving it properly. As a result of which the Punjab water has become a great threat for itself. Out of 138 blocks, 108 blocks have become dark zones where the underground water has been extracted at a very large scale. 14 blocks, out of 16, has been declared dark zones in Amritsar Distt. which is known as a sacred place having no. of water resources. The water level in Punjab has gone down to such an extent that even modern water extracting motors are unable to pick up water. To get avenge of it, the submersible pumps have been introduced. If the water level goes on decreasing like this, One day will come when it will become difficult even for the submersible pumps to extract water.
The major causes of this wastage are as below
• A lot of discharge of water from earth and negligible recharge
• Huge Paddy cultivation and growing of Neelgiri (safeda)
• Deforestation at large scale
• Decreasing ponds
• Dry rivers
Decreasing area of wetlands
Discharge of water at large scale
In 1970-71, 1.92 lakhs tube wells were there in Punjab Overall. But in 2001-02, the counting has raised to 9.50 lakhs. According to Govt. Sources, this is the main reason of lowering water level. Constant growth of paddy and Neelgiri: - It is noticed that there is a vast area in Punjab which comes under paddy crop. There is a great need of water for paddy crop. It is estimated that 2700 litre of water is required for the production of 1Kg. of rice. The production of Neelgiri (Safeda plant) is also at a very large scale for which water is also required in bulk.
JAYANTI, BUDHKI, SISWA in the Shivalik range in Punjab near roparthe rivers namely above are drying & people trying to encroachment of river area.
Decreasing Area of wetlands
According to Govt .point of view, there are 13 wetlands all over in PUNJAB including Kahnuwan Chanab, Keshevepur miani stream, Ranjeet sagar Dam in Gurdaspur Distt. , Jasterwal and Harike in Amritsar, Kanjli in Kapurthala, Nangal in Ropar and Hussaniwala (Ferozpur) Mangowal, Dholband, Malli Dam (Hushiarpur) But most of them are in worse condition now. The wetland area is gradually decreasing because personal encroachment cultivate of land of these wetlands. Kahnuwan chchamb is about to ruin completely is a example of encroachment & land convert to agriculture cultivation. It is worth telling here that these wetlands not only help to raise the water table, but also help to maintain ecological balance.
Wetlands that are about to ruin
(1) Kahnuwan : This wetland is basically surrounded by the area of Gurdaspur which has been turned into agricultural land by government by promotion of build rain drainage for extraction of wetland water & throw it in Beas river.
(2) Jasterwal Lake : It is situated in block Chogavan in Amritsar distt. This is that particular area where natural water has been stopped by the local people. Now tube wells are being used to irrigate the lotus cultivation. In this area.
How to get rid of it ?
1) Do live the dead Ponds : The ponds should be deep and their catch mat Area should be clear & smooth so that rainy water may reach ponds easily. The polluted water should be filtered and poured into ponds.
2) Roof Top Rain water Harvesting : The rain water should be collected on the top of the roofs chanelised it reached the water to small chambers it should be sent inside the earth through Bore Wells throw pipes and filters.
3) Crop Diversification : Other crops must be preferred by decreasing the area under paddy Crop. Further growing of Neelgiri (Safeda Plant) must be stopped and organic manure must be used which consume less water at all.
4) Save wetlands : We should make people aware about the importance of wetlands and give them relative knowledgeable information about conserve the wetlands.
5) Save the rivers : Stop the encroachment of river land flowing nearby the villages.
6) Stop the water wastage : The wastage of water, whether in houses, Agricultural uses or at commercial level, should be stopped.
Biological diversity or biodiversity is the extraordinary variety of life on earth in terms of plants, animals and microorganisms from genes and species to ecosystem.
Importance of Biodiversity
Large resource base to meet the food, health and other needs of the growing world population
National food security system (prevention from disease attack and total crop failure)
Cultural and Aesthetic Value
Threats to Biodiversity
Modification and habitat destruction
Overexploitation and MIS evaluation of natural resources
Accidental or deliberate introducing of species
Pollution ( air, water, soil )
Global climate change ( the greenhouse effect and destruction of the zone layer )
Inequity in flow the benefits
Lack of basic ecological data
What Can We Do ?
Restore habitats and eco-systems
Conserve important species-ex-situ and in-situ
Promote eco-friendly projects
Involve communities through education and awareness.
Balance needs-follow sustainable living principals
Promote scientific research Sustainable Development - Treads and solution
Environmental Conservation - Treads and solution
What is Global warming ?
• Global warming is increase in the average temperature of the Earth‘s’ surface, lower atmosphere and oceans.
• it is caused by increase in concentrations of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere having origin human activities.
• Most of the observed increase in global average temperature is attributed to human induced greenhouse effect.
What do we know
• The atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (co2) and methane (CH4) have increased by 31% and 149% respectively above pre-industrial levels (1750 AD).
• The principal sectors contributing to increase in concentration of green house gases include energy, industry, agriculture and forestry. About three-quarters of man –made emissions are due to fossil fuel burning (coal and oil).
• Global average air temperature near the Earth‘s’ surface has risen by0.74_+ 0.180 C during the past century.
• The average global sea level rose at an average rate of 1,8mm per year between 1961 to 2003 and by 3.1 mm per year between 1993 to 2003.
• Maximum temperature is projected to increase by 2-40C by the2050s.
• Climate models referenced by the inter-governmental panel on climate change(IPCC) project that global surface temperatures are likely to increase by 1.1to 60C by the end of this century.
What are the impacts: An increase in global
temperatures can cause changes in the climate which manifest
• Changes in the amount and pattern of precipitation.
• Increase in frequency and intensity of extreme weather events (cyclones, heat waves, drought, floods etc.
• Receding glaciers.
• Rising sea levels.
• Reduced summer stream flows.
• Decline in agriculture yields.
• Increased in incidence of vector-borne diseases (malaria, dengue etc.)
What can we do ?
• Reduce, reuse, and Recycle.
• Drive less, Drive smart –Bike, Bus or Walk.
• Switch them off – mobile chargers, computers and other applications – when not in use.
• Be energy efficient – use CFLs instead of incandescent bulbs.
• Plant trees- help sequester atmospheric carbon.
• Talk about it – create awareness.
• Use jute and cloth bags instead of plastic and polythene.
Legal actions about Environment Conservation
The Environment (Protection) Act , 1986
The Environment (Protection) Rules , 1986
The Hazardous Waste (Management and Handling) Rules , 1989
The Manufacture, Storage, and Import of Hazardous Chemical Rules
The Manufacture, Use, Import, Export, and Storage of hazardous Micro-organisms/ Genetically Engineered Organisms or Cells Rules
The Public Liability Insurance Act , 1991
The National Environmental Tribunal Act , 1995
The National Environment Appellate Authority Act , 1997
The Biomedical waste (Management and Handling) Rules , 1998
The Environment (Siting for Industrial Projects) Rules, 1999
The Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000
The Ozone Depleting Substances (Regulation and Control)
The Batteries (Management and Handling) Rules, 2001
The Biological Diversity Act , 2002
The Indian Forest Act ,1927
The Wildlife Protection Act, 1972
The Wildlife Protection Rules, 1995
The Forest (Conservation) Act , 1980
The Forest (Conservation) Rules, 1981
The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act , 1974
The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act , 1977
The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Rules , 1978
The Coastal Regulation Zone Notification , 1991
The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act , 1981
The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Rules , 1982
The Motor Vehicles Act , 1988
Central Motor Vehicles Rules, 1989